This is the Muhtar Holland English translation of this precious work Sirr al-Asrar wa Mazhar al-Anwar. Although there has been previously published an English interpretation by respected Shaikh Tosun Bayrak, this is the first actual translation into the English Language and includes transliteration of all Arabic key words. The contents are too diverse to describe here, but include: The shops of the spirit in the body; Division of knowledge into knowledge on the tongue and knowledge in the inner core; The number of the sciences; Explanation of the Sacred Law [Shari'a], the Spiritual Path [Tariqa], Direct Knowledge [Ma'rifa] and Reality [Haqiqa]; Concerning the people of spiritual culture [tasawwuf]; The difference between the ascetics and the people of intimate knowledge; Meanings of the term tasawwuf; The five tokens of bliss; The tokens of misery; The four domains, the spirits, the manifestations, and the intellects and so on. This is a most important book for anyone traveling the spiritual path. Twenty-four sections.
In the Name of Allah, the All-Merciful, the All-Compassionate.
Bismi'llahi 'r-Rahmani 'r-Rahim.
Praise be to Allah, the All-Powerful, the All-Knowing, the All-Wise, the All-Generous, the Noble, the Compassionate Lord, the One who revealed the Wise Remembrance and the Glorious Qur'an to the Envoy, whom He sent to convey the Right Religion and the Straight Path.
Blessing and peace be on the seal of the Mission, the guide out of error, and on the Messenger ennobled with the noblest of the Scriptures and the Book, Muhammad, the unlettered Prophet, the Arabian, the trustworthy, and on his family, the rightly guided guides, and his Companions, the excellent Ã©lite, and may Allah grant them peace in great abundance.
This book contains the words of the Supreme Helper, the Lordly Cardinal Pole, the everlasting edifice, the radiantly shining lamp, the Sultan of the saints and the masters of direct knowledge, the proof of the chosen and those who have reached their spiritual destination, Allah's Gray Falcon, our patron, our master and our exemplary guide to Allah (Exalted is He), the noble highborn patrician, the chieftain, Shaikh Muhyi 'd-Din 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani al-Hasani al-Husaini (may Allah sanctify his splendid innermost being, and may He illuminate his noble mausoleum), son of Imam Sayyid Abu Salih Musa Jangi Dost, son of Imam Sayyid 'Abdu'llah, son of Imam Sayyid Yahya az-Zahid, son of Imam Sayyid Muhammad, son of Imam Sayyid Dawud, son of Imam Sayyid Musa, son of Imam Sayyid 'Abdu'llah, son of Imam Sayyid Musa al-Jawn, son of Imam Sayyid 'Abdu'llah al-Mahd, son of Imam Sayyid al-Hasan al-Muthanna, son of Imam al-Humam Sayyid al-Hasan as-Sibt, son of our chief and our patron, the Commander of the Believers, Abu 'l-Husain 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be well pleased with them all).
On his mother's side of the family, the line of descent of our revered master and patron, Shaikh Muhyi'd-Din 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (may Allah the Exalted be well pleased with him), is as follows:
He is Sayyid Shaikh Muhyi 'd-Din 'Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (may Allah sanctify his luminous innermost being), son of Sayyida Umm al-Khair Amat al-Jabbar Fatima, daughter of Sayyid 'Abdu'llah as-Sawma'i az-Zahid, son of Sayyid Abu 'Abdi'llah Jamal ad-Din Muhammad, son of Sayyid Mahmud, son of Sayyid Abu 'l-'Ata' 'Abdu'llah, son of Sayyid Kamal ad-Din 'Isa, son of Sayyid Imam Abu 'Abdi'llah 'Ala' ad-Din Muhammad al-Jawad, son of Sayyid Imam 'Ali ar-Rida, son of Sayyid Imam Musa al-Kazim, son of Imam Ja'far as-Sadiq, son of Imam Muhammad al-Baqir, son of Imam Zain al-'Abidin 'Ali, son of Imam al-Humam al-Husain, the Martyr of Karbala', son of Imam al-Humam, the Commander of the Believers, our master 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (may Allah be well pleased with him, and with them all).
Knowledge is the most noble talent, the most magnificent degree, the most splendid object of pride, and the most valuable form of merchandise, since it is the means by which to arrive at the realization and affirmation of the Oneness of the Lord of All the Worlds [tawhid Rabb al-'alamin], and belief in His Prophets and Messengers (may Allah's blessings be upon them all).
The religious scholars became the favored Ã©lite of the servants of Allah. He drew them toward the signs of His religion and guided them toward it. He preferred them and selected them for the special merit of grace. They are the heirs and deputies of the Prophets, and the chieftains and confidants of the Messengers. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
Then We gave the Book as inheritance to those
thumma awrathna 'l-Kitaba 'lladhina 'stafaina
whom We elected of Our servants.
But of them are some who wrong themselves
fa-min-hum zalimun li-nafsi-h:
and of them are some who adopt a middle course,
wa min-hum muqtasid.
(That is to say: "There are some whose bad deeds are on a par with their good deeds.")
and of them are some
wa min-hum sabiqun
who outstrip through good deeds.
As the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) once said:
The religious scholars are the heirs of the Prophets in knowledge. The inhabitants of heaven will love them, and the fish in the ocean will seek forgiveness on their behalf, until the Day of Resurrection.
Allah (Exalted is He) has also said:
Only those of His servants fear Allah who have knowledge.
inna-ma yakhsha 'llaha min 'ibadi-hi 'l-'ulama'. (35:28)
The Prophet (blessing and peace be upon him) also said:
Allah will raise up His creatures on the Day of Resurrection, then He will distinguish the scholars, for Allah (Exalted is He) will say: "O company of scholars, when I instilled My knowledge in you, I did so only because of My knowledge of you. I did not instill it in you so that I might torment you. Away you go, to the Garden of Paradise, for I have forgiven you!"
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of All the Worlds, in every situation. Praise be to the One who has established the ascending levels as a protection for the worshipful servants, and the stations of nearness for those who know by experience.
One of the seekers requested us to compile a manuscript for him, sufficient for all essential purposes. We have therefore compiled this summary for his benefit, in accordance with his wish, so that it may be enough to satisfy him and others. I have given it the title: "The Secret of Secrets, concerning what is needed by the righteous [Sirr al-Asrar fi-ma yahtaju ilai-hi 'l-abrar]."
In this work, we have discussed what the seeker generally needs to know about the Sacred Law [Shari'a], the Spiritual Path [Tariqa],and Reality [Haqiqa]. We have provided an Introduction, followed by twenty-four Sections, twenty-four being the number of Arabic letters in la ilaha illa 'llah; Muhammadur Rasulu 'llah [There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah],1 as well as the number of the hours in the night and the day.
As for the Introduction, it is devoted to an account of the beginning of creation.
As for the Sections. they contain explanations of the following subjects:
1. The return of the human being to his original home.
2. The reduction of the human being to the lowest of the low.
3. The shops of the spirit in the body.
4. The sciences.
5. Repentance and instruction.
6. The Sufis [ahl at-tasawwuf].
7. Practices of remembrance [adhkar].
8. Prerequisites of remembrance [dhikr].
9. The vision of Allah (Exalted is He).
10. The veils of darkness and the veils of light.
11. Bliss and misery.
12. The spiritual paupers [fuqara'].
13. The purity of the Sacred Law and the Spiritual Path.
14. The ritual prayer of the Sacred Law and the Spiritual Path.
15. Purity of direct knowledge in the realm of complete detachment.
16. The alms-due [zakat] of the Sacred Law and the Spiritual Path.
17. The fast [sawm] of the Sacred Law and the Spiritual Path.
18. The pilgrimage [hajj] of the Sacred Law and the Spiritual Path.
19. Ecstasy [wajd] and pure serenity.
20. The practice of seclusion and isolation.
21. The litanies [awrad] of secluded retreat.
22. Things that happen during sleep and slumber.
23. More about the Sufis [ahl at-tasawwuf].
24. The final conclusion.
Allah is my only Source of enabling grace. In Him I put all my trust, and to Him I turn in repentance.
The beginning of creation
You should know-may Allah enable you to achieve what is dear and pleasing to Him!-that Allah (Exalted is He) first created the spirit of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) from the light of His Beauty. As Allah (Almighty and Glorious is He) has told us:
I created the spirit of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace) from the light of My countenance.2
As the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) has said:
The first thing that Allah created was my spirit [ruh]. The first thing that Allah created was my light [nur]. The first thing that Allah created was the pen [qalam]. The first thing that Allah created was the intellect ['aql].
This means that they are all one thing, that being the Muhammadan Reality [al-Haqiqat al-Muhammadiyya], but it is called a "light [nur]" because it is pure and unclouded by the darknesses of Majesty. As Allah (Blessed and Exalted is He) has said:
There has now come to you from Allah
qad ja'a-kum mina 'llahi
a Light, and a clear Book.
Nurun wa Kitabun mubin. (5:15)
It is also called an "intellect ['aql]," because it comprehends universal truths [kulliyyat]. It is also called a "pen [qalam]," because it is an instrument for the transmission of knowledge, just as the pen is an instrument in the realm of letters [of the alphabet].
The Muhammadan spirit is thus the quintessence of all entities, the first of all beings and the origin of them all. As he has said (blessing and peace be upon him):
I am from Allah and the believers are from me.
Allah created all the spirits from him in the realm of Divinity [Lahut], and in the finest real formation. "Muhammad" is the name of all human beings in that realm, and he is the original home.
Then, when four thousand years had passed, Allah created the Heavenly Throne ['Arsh] from the light of the eye of Muhammad (Allah bless him and give him peace), and from the Heavenly Throne He created the rest of existing entities. Then He reduced the spirits to the lowest level of existence, meaning the physical bodies. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
Then We reduced him [the human being]
to the lowest of the low.
asfala safilin. (95:5)
In other words, the first descent was from the realm of Divinity [Lahut] to the realm of Omnipotence [Jabarut]. Between the two Sanctuaries, Allah (Exalted is He) clothed them with the light of Omnipotence, which is the royal spirit [ruh sultani]. Then he sent them down, in this attire, to the realm of Sovereignty [Malakut], and He clothed them with the light of Sovereignty, which is the immaterial spirit [ruh ruhani]. Then He sent them down to the realm of Dominion [Mulk], and He clothed them with the light of Dominion, which is the physical spirit. Then from it Allah created the bodies. As He has said (Exalted is He):
Out of it [the earth] We created you,
and into it We shall send you back again,
wa fi-ha nu'idu-kum
and We shall bring you forth from it a second time.
wa min-ha nukhriju-kum taratan ukhra. (20:55)
Then Allah (Exalted is He) commanded the spirits to enter the bodies, so they entered at Allah's command (Exalted is He). As He has said (Almighty and Glorious is He):
And I breathed into him of My Spirit.
wa nafakhtu fi-hi min Ruhi. (38:72)
When the spirits became attached to the physical bodies, they forgot the covenant they had contracted on the day when Allah asked them: "Am I not your Lord?" and they said: "Yes indeed!"3 Because of this, they did not return to the original home, but the All-Merciful Source of Help took pity on them. He sent down Heavenly Books to remind them of that original home. As He has said (Exalted is He):
We sent Moses with Our signs, [saying]:
wa la-qad arsalna Musa bi-ayati-na
"Bring your people forth from darkness into light,
an akhrij qawma-ka mina 'z-zulumati ila 'n-nuri
and remind them of the days of Allah."
wa dhakkir-hum bi-ayyami 'llah. (14:5)
In other words: "Remind them of the former days of communion with Him, in the company of the spirits."
All the Prophets came into this world and went away to the Hereafter because of this admonition, but few human beings took heed, longed for their original home and returned to it, until Prophethood was assigned to the supreme Muhammadan spirit, the seal of the Mission and the guide away from error. Allah sent him to those heedless people, to open their eyes from the sleep of heedlessness, so he summoned them to Allah (Exalted is He), to contact with Him and the meeting with His sempiternal Beauty. As Allah (Exalted is He) said to him:
Say: "This is my way: I call to Allah
qul hadhihi sabili ad'u ila 'llah:
with insightful knowledge, I and whoever follows me."
'ala basiratin ana wa mani 'ttaba'a-ni. (12:108)
The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) once said:
My Companions are like the stars. Whomever of them you follow, you will be guided aright.
Insight comes from the eye of the spirit, which opens within the heart of the saints [awliya']. That is why it is not acquired by knowledge of the external world, but only by knowledge of the inner Presence. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
And We taught him knowledge from Our Presence.
wa 'allamna-hu min ladun-na 'ilma. (18:65)
It is therefore necessary for the human being to acquire that eye,
and so become one of the masters of insight, by taking instruction
from a saint, a spiritual guide whose teaching concerns the realm of Divinity [Lahut].
O brethren! Wake up, and hasten to forgiveness from your Lord through repentance! As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
And hasten to forgiveness from your Lord,
wa sari'u ila maghfiratin min Rabbi-kum
and a Garden as wide as the heavens and the earth,
wa jannatin 'ardu-ha 's-samawatu wa 'l-ardu
which has been made ready for those who are truly devout.
u'iddat li'l-muttaqin. (3:133)
Embark upon the path, and return to your Lord with these spiritual caravans. The path will soon be cut off, and no travelling companion will be found. We have not come to settle in this vile, dilapidated world, nor for the sake of eating, drinking, and satisfying crude natural instincts. Your Prophet is waiting, sorrowful for your sake. As he said (peace be upon him):
My sorrow is for the members of my Community who will come in later times.
The knowledge that is sent down to us is twofold: exoteric and esoteric, meaning the sacred law [shari'a] and direct understanding [ma'rifa]. Allah (Exalted is He) has commanded us to apply the sacred law to our outer being, and direct understanding to our inner being, so that the combination of the two will result in knowledge of Reality [Haqiqa], just as fruit is produced by the tree and the leaves. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
He has partitioned the two seas.
They meet, [but] between them there is a barrier
yaltaqiyan: baina-huma barzakhun
that they do not overpass.
la yabghiyan. (55:19,20)
Reality cannot be attained, and the goal cannot be reached, by exoteric knowledge alone. Perfect worship is accomplished by means of both forms of knowledge, not one without the other. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
I did not create the jinn and humankind
wa ma khalaqtu 'l-jinna wa 'l-insa
except to worship Me.
illa li-ya'budun. (51:56)
In other words: "to know and understand Me." If someone does not know and understand Him, how can he worship Him? Direct knowledge is attainable only by removing of the veil of the lower self [nafs] from the mirror of the heart, and cleaning and polishing that mirror.
It will then reflect the beauty of the treasure hidden in the secret of the heart's core. Allah (Exalted is He) has said in the Sacred Tradition [Hadith Qudsi]:
I was a hidden treasure and I wished to be known, so I created Creation.
It is clear, therefore, that Allah (Exalted is He) created the human being to know and understand Him.
Direct knowledge is of two kinds: knowledge of the attributes [sifat] of Allah (Exalted is He), and knowledge of His Essence [Dhat]. Knowledge of the attributes is experienced by the physical body in both domains [this world and the Hereafter], while knowledge of the Essence is experienced by the holy spirit in the Hereafter. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
And We supported him [Jesus] with the holy spirit.
wa ayyadna-hu bi-Ruhi 'l-Qudus. (2:87)
They [who know the Essence] are likewise supported with the holy spirit.
These two experiences are attainable only by means of two forms of knowledge, the exoteric knowledge and the esoteric knowledge mentioned above. As the Prophet (peace be upon him) once said:
Knowledge ['ilm] is twofold: knowledge conveyed by the tongue, that being Allah's testimony to His servants, and knowledge conveyed by the heart, that being the knowledge that is useful for the attainment of the goal.
First of all, the human being needs knowledge of the sacred law, in order to provide the body with sufficient education in the realm of the attributes, that being the realm of the stages of development. He then needs esoteric knowledge, in order to provide the spirit with education in its own realm of understanding. That can only be achieved by abstaining from all practices that are incompatible with the sacred law and the spiritual path [tariqa]. Its achievement requires the endurance of personal and spiritual hardships, for the sake of pleasing Allah (Exalted is He), without hypocritical display [riya'] and the pursuit of fame [sum'a]. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said:
So whoever hopes for the meeting with his Lord,
fa-man kana yarju liqa'a Rabbi-hi
let him do righteous work,
fa-l'-ya'mal 'amalan salihan
and let him give no one any share at all
wa la yushrik
in the worship due unto his Lord.
bi-'ibadati Rabbi-hi ahada. (18:110)
The realm of direct knowledge is the realm of Divinity [Lahut], and that is the original home, in which the holy spirit was created in the finest formation. What is meant by the holy spirit is the real human spirit, which was installed in the core of the heart, and which becomes manifest through repentance, instruction, and constantly declaring: "There is no god but Allah [la ilaha illa 'llah]." This declaration is first made with the tongue, then with the inner being, when the heart has become alive.
The Sufis have called the inner being "the child of the spiritual concepts [tifl al-ma'ani]," because it arises from the sacred conceptions. It is called a child for several reasons:
1. It is born from the heart, as the child is born from the mother, then reared by the father as it steadily grows to maturity.
2. Just as worldly knowledge is taught to ordinary children, spiritual knowledge is taught to this special child.
3. The ordinary child is unsoiled by the filth of external sins, and this special child is likewise pure and unstained by the filth of polytheism [shirk], heedlessness and physicality.
4. In the case of this special child, the purity of form is even greater, so it is seen in dreams in a shape like that of the angels.
5. Allah (Exalted is He) has described the attendants of the Garden of Paradise in terms of childhood [tifliyya], in His saying (Almighty and Glorious is He):
There wait on them immortal boys.
yatufu 'ala-him wildanun mukhalladun. (56:17)
And there go round, waiting on them,
wa yatufu 'alai-him
young boys of theirs,
as if they were hidden pearls.
ka-anna-hum lu'lu'un maknun. (52:24)
6. The name "child" conveys a sense of its gentleness and its cleanliness.
7. The name "child" is used metaphorically, to indicate its connection with the body and its likeness to the human form, but only for the sake of comparison, not for the purpose of belittlement. It refers to this "child's" initial state.
This "child" is the real human being, because he has a connection with Allah (Exalted is He), so the body and physicality are not unlawful to him. As the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) once said:
I have a time with Allah, when there is no space for any angel brought near [to the Lord], nor for any Prophet sent as a Messenger.
This [Prophet sent as a Messenger] refers to the human nature of the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace). The angel brought near [to the Lord] refers to his spirituality, which was created from the light of Omnipotence [Jabarut], as was the angel, so it has no entry into the light of Divinity [Lahut]. The Prophet (blessing and peace be upon him) also said:
Allah has a Garden in which there are no houries, no palaces, no honey and no milk, but where one gazes only at Allah's countenance (Exalted is He).
As Allah (Magnificent is His Majesty) has said:
Faces on that day will be resplendent,
wujuhun yawma'idhin nadira:
looking toward their Lord.
ila Rabbi-ha nazira. (75:22,23)
As the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:
You will see your Lord as you see the moon on the night when it is full.
If the angel and the physical body entered into these realms, they would be burned to ashes. As Allah (Exalted is He) has said in the Sacred Tradition [Hadith Qudsi]:
If I disclosed the splendors of My Majesty, I would burn up everything as far as My eye can see.
As Gabriel (peace be upon him) said: "If I had drawn nearer by a fingertip, I would have been set on fire."